Demonstrating a Difference in Life Using the Difference Detection
In the manufacturing industry, design/test engineers
often need to design demonstration tests for devices and
materials from different suppliers. To do this, they
need to decide which sample size and testing time are
most appropriate for the test. The Synthesis version of Weibull++
has a new tool, the Difference Detection Matrix, which can
help engineers make such decisions. The Difference Detection
Matrix calculates how much test time is required before
it is possible to detect a statistically significant difference
in the mean life or BX% life (e.g., B10 life) of two product
designs by analyzing the data from a reliability life test.
The engineer can use this tool to evaluate different
test plans in order to choose the most efficient way to
compare the reliability metric of two designs.
In this article,
we will use an example to illustrate how to use this new
tool. If you have Synthesis installed on your computer,
you can download and view the example file (5.25 MB, *.rsrp)
A test engineer was asked to evalute water pumps from two different
manufacturers. Manufacturer A claims that its pump’s (Type
A) failure time follows a Weibull distribution with beta
= 2 and a mean life of 600 hours. Manufacturer B claims
that its pump's (Type B) failure time follows a lognormal
distribution with log-std = 0.8 and a mean life of 1,050
hours. The engineer was assigned the task of demonstrating
a mean life difference between these two products. The budget
allocated to the task is $9,000. One pump A device costs
$100, and one pump B costs $120. One hour of test time costs
The engineer used Weibull++ to do the analysis.
To create a new Difference Detection Matrix, he chose
Insert > Tools > Test Design, and in the
Test Design Assistant (shown in Figure 1), he chose
Difference Detection Matrix.
Figure 1 - Test Design Assistant
In the new Matrix, he specified that he will be comparing
the mean life of each design with a confidence level of
90%. Then he provided the inputs shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2 - Inputs to the Matrix control panel
As these inputs show, the engineer decided to first
try a sample size of 20 for both products, and he
specified that the tool will consider all mean life
values up to 1,500 hours (Max Metric Time) in increments
of 150 hours (Metric Increment).
Next, in the Test Time Matrix Setup
area, he selected to evaluate 10 different test times. After
clearing the Calculate Test Times check
box, he clicked inside the Test Times field
to enter the test times in the table shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3 - Specifying test times to evaluate
The resulting Matrix
is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 - Difference Detection Matrix
The columns represent the possible mean life values
for Design 1 (here, Design A), and the rows represent possible
mean life values for Design 2 (here, Design B). The number
inside each cell indicates what test time within the
specified range (if any) would
be sufficient to detect a difference in the specified reliability
metric. Since Design A has an expected life of 600 hours
and Design B has an expected life of 1,050 hours, the
to click the cell at the fourth column and seventh row.
The estimated mean life and its confidence interval for
each design and at 1,000 hours of test time are displayed next to the cursor in Figure 4. Since the two confidence intervals
do not overlap, the engineer knew that a difference in mean life
be detected with 1,000 hours of test time.
The test engineer wanted to use the shortest test
time possible within the provided budget. So he
gradually increased the test
samples to 45 (in increments of 5) and recalculated the matrix
The sample sizes, corresponding test times and
(calculated by combining the costs of test units and
testing time as described above) are shown in Table 1.
Since the budget is limited to $9,000, the engineer
decided to pick the plan with a sample size of 35.
Table 1 - Different Test Plans
with Different Sample Sizes
|Sample Size for A
||Sample Size for B
||Test Time (Hr)
With the current mean life values, the engineer wanted to see
the expected failure times for these two products. So he
opened the Test Design Assistant window again and chose
Expected Failure Time Plot. In the control panel, he entered
the expected failure model for Design A. For Design
A with the Weibull distribution, if the mean life = 600 and beta = 2,
then eta can be solved by:
For Design B with the lognormal distribution, if the
mean life = 1,050 and log-std = 0.8, then the mean of
the logarithms of the failure times could be solved by:
So the expected failure model for Design A is a
Weibull distribution with beta = 2 and eta = 677. And
the failure model for Design B is a lognormal
distribution with log-mean = 6.64 and log-std = 0.8. 35
would be used for testing, and two-sided 90% confidence
bounds would be chosen. The expected failure times for
Design A are plotted in Fig. 5.
Figure 5 - Expected Failure Time Plot for Design A
The expected failure times for Design B are plotted
in Fig 6.
Figure 6 - Expected Failure Time Plot for Design B
With the planned test time and these expected failure
times in mind, the engineer began the test.
In this article, we used an example to illustrate how
to use the Difference Detection Matrix to design a test
intended to demonstrate a difference
in life between two products. (For simple cases like
this example, the Difference
Detection Matrix can be used—but for more complex cases, advanced design of experiments (DOE) techniques
may be more appropriate.) The Matrix can help a
design/test engineer choose a sample size and
testing time, with the goal of adopting an economically optimized test plan.